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Measurement Standards and Best Practices

GCW best practices for cryospheric measurements are currently being compiled into the GCW Manual. GCW is drawing on existing measurement methods where possible and where a scientific consensus has been or can be reached. An initial inventory of existing documents describing measurement practices, or in some cases best practices for processing the observations, is given below.

Cryosphere Element Existing Documents
Snow

Armstrong, R., K. Steffen, M. Monteduro, and R. Sessa, 2009, Assessment of the status of the development of the standards for the Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables – T5 - Snow. Global Terrestrial Observing System GTOS-60, Rome. (PDF)

CEN (European Committee for Standardization), 2010, Hydrometry - Measurement of snow water equivalent using snow mass registration devices. CEN/TR 15996:2010, Brussels.

Fierz, C., Armstrong, R.L., Durand, Y., Etchevers, P., Greene, E., McClung, D.M., Nishimura, K., Satyawali, P.K. and Sokratov, S.A. 2009, The International Classification for Seasonal Snow on the Ground. IHP-VII Technical Documents in Hydrology No. 83, UNESCO-IHP, Paris. 90 pp. (PDF)

MSC, 2012, Manual of Climatological Observations, Fourth Edition, Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada, 27 pp., ISBN: 978-1-100-20938-8. ((PDF)

MSC, 2013, Manual of Surface Weather Observations, Seventh Edition, Amendment 18, Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada, 500 pp., ISBN: 978-1-100-20937-1. (PDF)

UNESCO, IASH, and WMO, 1970, Seasonal snow cover, a guide for measurement compilation and assemblage of data. Technical papers in hydrology, a contribution to the International Hydrological Decade, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, Place de Fontenoy, 75 Paris-7e, 37 pp. (PDF)

Western Snow Conference Metrication Committee (P.E. Farnes, B.E. Goodison, N.R. Peterson, and R.P. Richards), 1983, Final Report: Metrication of Manual Snow Sampling Equipment, Available from Western Snow Conference, Spokane, Washington, USA. (PDF)

Glaciers, ice sheets, ice caps

Kaser, G., Fountain, A., and Jansson, P., 2003, A Manual For Monitoring the Mass Balance of Mountain Glaciers. IHP-VI Technical Documents in Hydrology No. 59, UNESCO-IHP, Paris. (PDF)

Östrem G. and M. Brugmann, 1991, Glacier Mass Balance Measurements. A manual for field and office work. National Hydrology Research Institute (Canada), Science Report No. 4, 224 pp. (PDF)

Paul, F., R.G. Barry, J.G. Cogley, H. Frey, W. Haeberli, A. Ohmura, C.S.L. Ommanney, B. Raup, A. Rivera & M. Zemp, 2009, Recommendations for the compilation of glacier inventory data from digital sources, Annals Glaciol., 50(53), 119–126. (PDF)

Paul, F., A Kääb, M. Maisch, T. Kellenberger, W. Haeberli, 2002, The new remote-sensing-derived Swiss glacier inventory: I. Methods, Annals Glaciol., 34, doi: 10.3189/172756402781817941. (PDF)

Pfeffer, W.T., et al., 2014, The Randolph Glacier Inventory: a globally complete inventory of glaciers, J. Glaciology, Vol. 60, No. 221, 2014 doi: 10.3189/2014JoG13J176. (PDF)

Smith, T., B. Bookhagen, and F. Cannon, 2015, Improving semi-automated glacier mapping with a multi-method approach: applications in central Asia, The Cryosphere, 9, 1747–1759, doi:10.5194/tc-9-1747-2015. (PDF)

UNESCO and IASH, 1970a, Perennial ice and snow masses, a guide for compilation and assemblage of data for world inventory. Technical Papers in Hydrology No. 1, UNESCO/IASH. (PDF)

UNESCO and IASH, 1970b, Combined heat, ice and water balances at selected glacier basins. Part I: A guide for compilation and assemblage of data for glacier mass balance measurements. Part II: Specifications, standards and data exchange. UNESCO/ IAHS Technical Papers in Hydrology 5, Paris, 45 pp. (PDF)

WGMS, 2012, General Guidelines for Data Submission and Notes on the Completion of Data Sheets. World Glacier Monitoring Service, Zurich, Switzerland: 18 pp. (PDF)

Zemp, M. and others, 2009, Assessment of the status of the development of the standards for the Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables – T6 – Glaciers and Ice Caps. Global Terrestrial Observing System GTOS-61, Rome.(PDF)

Zemp, M., Thibert, E., Huss, M., Stumm, D., Rolstad Denby, C., Nuth, C., Nussbaumer, S.U., Moholdt, G., Mercer, A., Mayer, C., Joerg, P.C., Jansson, P., Hynek, B., Fischer, A., Escher-Vetter, H., Elvehøy, H., and Andreassen, L.M., 2013, Reanalysing glacier mass balance measurement series. The Cryosphere, 7, 1227-1245, doi:10.5194/tc-7-1227-2013. http://www.the-cryosphere.net/7/1227/2013/tc-7-1227-2013.html. (PDF)

Sea, lake, and river ice

Eicken, H., B.A. Bluhm, R.E. Collins, R.R. Gradinger, C. Haas, M. Ingham, A. Mahoney, M. Nicolaus, D. Perovich, 2014, Field Techniques in Sea-Ice Research, in Cold Regions Science and Marine Technology, [Ed. H. Shen], in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Paris, France, [http://www.eolss.net] (PDF)

JCOMM, 2004, Ice chart colour code standard. JCOMM Technical Report No. 24, WMO/TD-No. 1215, 15 pp. (PDF)

Johnston, M.E. and G.W. Timco, 2008, Understanding and Identifying Old Ice in Summer. National Research Council Canada, Canadian Hydraulics Centre, Mational Research Council of Canada. (PDF)

MSC, 2005, MANICE: Manual of Standard Procedures for Observing an Reporting Ice Conditions, Ninth Edition, Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada, 145 pp., ISBN: 0-660-62858-9. (PDF)

NOAA, 2007, Observers Guide to Sea Ice. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 30 pp. (PDF)

WMO, 2004, Sea-Ice Nomenclature, Volume III – International system of sea-ice symbols, WMO-No.259. Electronic version is available at http://www.aari.ru/gdsidb/XML/wmo_259.php. (PDF)

Worby, A. P. and I. Allison (1999), A technique for making ship-based observations of Antarctic sea ice thickness and characteristics, Part I: Observational technique and results, Antarctic CRC Research Report, 14, 68 pp. (PDF)

WMO, 2017, Sea-Ice Information Services in the World, WMO-No. 574, 111 pp. (PDF)

Permafrost

GTN-P, 2012, Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost Strategy and Implementation Plan, 2012-2016, International Permafrost Association. (PDF)

Smith, S. and J. Brown, 2009, Assessment of the status of the development of the standards for the Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables - T7 - Permafrost and seasonally frozen ground. Global Terrestrial Observing System GTOS-62, Rome. (PDF)

Solid precipitation

Goodison B.E., P.Y.T. Louie, D. Yang, 1998, WMO Solid Precipitation Measurement Intercomparison- Final Report, WMO/TD - No. 872. (PDF)

MSC, 2012, Manual of Climatological Observations, Fourth Edition, Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada, 27 pp., ISBN: 978-1-100-20938-8. ((PDF)

MSC, 2015, Manual of Surface Weather Observations, Seventh Edition, Amendment 19, Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada, 478 pp., ISBN 978-1-100-25445-6. (PDF)

Nitu R. and Wong K., 2010, CIMO Survey on National Summaries of Methods and Instruments for Solid Precipitation Measurements at Automatic Weather Stations, WMO/TD-No. 1544. (PDF)

WMO, 2012 (2008 version updated in 2010), Guide to meteorological instruments and methods of observation, WMO-No. 8, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 716 pp. (PDF)