PROMICE Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network [Candidate]
Basic CryoNet Site Information
Measurement Methods Used
- WMO Technical Regulations
Other relevant measurement method documents:
Given the broad scope of PROMICE, different guidelines and measurement methods are followed as far as relevant to the peculiar conditions of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Among these:
WMO, 2008, Guide to meteorological instruments and methods of observation, WMO-No. 8, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Paul, F., R.G. Barry, J.G. Cogley, H. Frey, W. Haeberli, A. Ohmura, C.S.L. Ommanney, B. Raup, A. Rivera & M. Zemp, 2009, Recommendations for the compilation of glacier inventory data from digital sources, Annals Glaciol., 50(53), 119–126.
Østrem G. and M. Brugmann, 1991, Glacier Mass Balance Measurements. A manual for field and office work. National Hydrology Research Institute (Canada), Science Report No. 4.
Kaser, G., Fountain, A., and Jansson, P., 2003, A Manual For Monitoring the Mass Balance of Mountain Glaciers. IHP-VI Technical Documents in Hydrology No. 59, UNESCO-IHP, Paris.
- Are the data quality controlled? yes
- How are the data accessible? FTP, an existing data center, other
- Data availability (may depend on the variable measured): in near real-time, delayed less than one year
The measurements made at PROMICE Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network are listed in the following tables. This is a combination of measurements made at the stations within the site, where the start and end years in the tables are the earliest and latest years of measurement. (Note: If End Year is blank, measurements are ongoing.)
Measurement Notes and Other Measurements
|Category||Description or List|
|Snow||Snow water equivalent (SWE): we started in 2012 experimenting with automatically monitoring SWE at selected sites using "Snowpack Analyzers" by Sommer (Austria). This is not currently operational.|
|Glacier||Since 2009 PROMICE includes one station outside the Greenland Ice Sheet, on Mittivakkat Glacier in East Greenland.|
Glacier area: PROMICE is mapping glaciers on an ongoing base and produced a complete map of all Greenland glaciers and ice caps: Citterio M and Ahlstrøm AP (2013) Brief communication "The aerophotogrammetric map of Greenland ice masses". The Cryosphere, 7, 445-449 (doi: 10.5194/tc-7-445-2013).
In general, given the logistic constraints of maintaining sensors in remote areas, there are occasional gaps in the tieseries, particularly before the esablishment of PROMICE as a network in 2007.
|Icesheet||Coincident airborne radar ice thickness and lidar surface elevation over a full round-trip of the Greenland ice sheet (designed to map the flux gates) in 2007 and in 2011, with a new repetition scheduled for 2015 or 2016.|
Surface velocity on the ground with GPS trackers and from space using SAR. GPS also gives continuous surface elevations but the accuracy is limiting for glaciological applications.
Mapping of the ice margin is an ongoing task given the size of Greenland. Most of the aerophotographs are from 1978-1987, with regions having older poorly documented coverage and optical remote sensing being used for recent dates (mostly Landsat 7-8 and ASTER).
In general, given the logistic constraints of maintaining sensors in remote areas, there are occasional gaps in the tieseries, particularly before the esablishment of PROMICE as a network in 2007. Surface albedo is sporadic before 2007.
|Atmosphere||Given the logistic constraints of maintaining sensors in remote areas, occasional gaps can exist also in the time series of those parameters with a target of continuous observations, particularly before the esablishment of PROMICE as a network in 2007. Surface albedo and the other radiation parameters are sporadic before 2007.|