WMO GCW home


  • Station or cluster: CryoNet Station
  • Type: Primary
  • Attribute(s): Cal/val, Research
  • WMO ID (if any): 71212
  • Shape: point
  • Latitude, longitude: 47.31667, -71.15
  • Altitude and/or range (m): 640,00 m
  • Landscape: Forest
  • Year established: 1965
  • Year-round? Yes
  • Operations contact: Sylvain Jutras
  • Science contact: Sylvain Jutras
  • Data contact: Sylvain Jutras
  • Click for website

Click here for Google Maps

Primary CryoNet Station Information

The Forêt Montmorency is a forest area of 66 km² located about 80 km north of Quebec City, within the Canadian boreal shield. Under the responsibility of Université Laval since 1965, this teaching and research forest was, from its inauguration, a high place for the development of meteorological and hydrological sciences. A meteorological reference station has been closely monitored and maintained for more than 50 years. An annual average of 619 mm of solid precipitation was measured, making it one of the Quebec’s weather stations measuring the greatest amount of snow.

In the winter of 2016-2017, there will be 8 automatic precipitation gauges, 7 manual precipitation gauges, 12 devices measuring the thickness of snow on the ground, 3 device measuring the precipitation phase, 1 apparatus measuring snow water equivalent, 1 snow line and several snow pits. There are also more than 20 additional devices measuring meteorological parameters (temperature, wind speed, radiation, etc.). There are also two windshield used as international references for the study of undercatch processes, namely a DFIR and a Bush gauge.

Other Networks to Which This CryoNet Station Belongs

Measurement Methods Used

Data Information


None explicitly aiming this issue.


The measurements made at Neige-FM are listed in the following tables. (Note: If End Year is blank, measurements are ongoing.)

Cryosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year Frequency
SnowSnow on the ground (WMO code 0957)1965Continuous
SnowSnow water equivalent2014Continuous
SnowSnowpack profile2015Sporadic
SnowSnowfall depth2014Continuous
SnowWater equivalent of snowfall1965Continuous
SnowSurface temperature2014Continuous
FrozengroundGround temperature2014Continuous
FrozengroundDistribution (local/regional)2016Continuous

Atmosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year Frequency
MetAir temperature1965Continuous
MetHumidity/vapour pressure1965Continuous
MetWind speed and direction1965Continuous
MetAir pressure1965Continuous
MetTotal precipitation1965Continuous
RadiationDownwelling shortwave2003
RadiationUpwelling shortwave2014
RadiationDownwelling longwave2003
RadiationUpwelling longwave2014
RadiationSunshine duration1965Continuous

Measurement Notes and Other Measurements

Category Description or List
Hydrology4 gauges catchments (1,2 to 9,2 km²) since 1965.
EcologyPossibly the most dense network of permanent and temporary vegetation plots in eastern canadian balsam fir stands.

Last updated: 31 May 2017