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  • Station or cluster: CryoNet Cluster
  • Type: Basic
  • WMO ID (if any):
  • Shape: point
  • Latitude, longitude: 19.036, -97.270
  • Altitude and/or range (m): 5080 -5600
  • Landscape: Coastal
  • Year established: 2006
  • Year-round? Yes
  • Operations contact:
  • Science contact: Hugo Delgado Granados
  • Data contact: Hugo Delgado Granados

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Glaciar Norte [Candidate]
Basic CryoNet Cluster Information

Citlaltépetl is located in the eastern part of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt, 100 km from the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, 200 km from Mexico City (Anexed Figure).This volcanic cone lies upon the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range that is aligned north-south to create a topographic barrier separating the dry Central Mexican plateau and the moist coastal plains along the Gulf of Mexico. Citlaltépetl is the highest volcano in North America.

Recent studies on the glacial surface of the Citlaltépetl Volcano show the seasonality of the local weather; where the temperature and the relative moisture determine the annual dry and wet seasons on the glacier.

Data Information


Delgado Granados, H. (2007). Climate change vs. Volcanic Activity: Forcing Mexican Glaciers to Extinguish and Related Hazards. Biblioteca Virtual del Programa Hidrológico Internacional para América Latina y el Caribe de la UNESCO. (Último acceso: 19 de octubre de 2014, http://omeka.int.unesco.org.uy/phi/biblioteca/items/show/151.)

Cortés-Ramos, J., & Delgado Granados, H. (2013). La evolución del mayor glaciar de México: vista desde el espacio. Coordinación de Estudios de Posgrado, UNAM. 148 pp. ISBN: 978-607-02-4731-6. (Sitio web: http://www.posgrado.unam.mx/publicaciones/ant_col-posg/)

Additional Information Documents


The measurements made at Glaciar Norte are listed in the following tables. This is a combination of measurements made at the stations within the site, where the start and end years in the tables are the earliest and latest years of measurement. (Note: If End Year is blank, measurements are ongoing.)

Cryosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year
PermafrostSoil temperature2015
PermafrostThermal state2015
PermafrostDistribution (local/regional)2015
GlacierAnnual mass balance2013
GlacierSurface topography20012006
GlacierSurface temperature2015
GlacierSurface albedo2015

Atmosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year
MetAir temperature20062009
MetHumidity/vapour pressure20062009

Measurement Notes and Other Measurements

Category Description or List
SnowSatellite imagery measurements
PermafrostPlanned 3 stations in the mid-term
GlacierRemote sensors applied to delimite and measure the glacier limits. GPR measurements in the near future.
AtmosphereNet Radiation 2006-2009 continous
EcologyQualitative relationship between hydrological sources and mountain environment at Citlaltépetl volcano.
OtherELA between 1999 to 2010 with Landsat and ASTER imagery

Mass balance with one SRTM DEM (2001) and photogrammetry DEM (2006) from a particular SIG company.

Monitoring of the glacial limits on Citlaltépetl and Iztaccíhuatl volcanoes using Landsat and ASTER imagery.

Last updated: 31 May 2017