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  • Station or cluster: CryoNet Station
  • Type: Primary
  • Attribute(s):
  • Belongs to cluster: Tianshan site
  • WMO ID (if any):
  • Shape: transect
  • Latitude, longitude: 43.05, 94.32
  • Altitude and/or range (m): 3500-4400
  • Landscape: Glacier
  • Year established: 1959
  • Year-round? Yes
  • Operations contact: Zhongqin Li
  • Science contact: Feiteng Wang
  • Data contact: Ping Zhou

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Urumqi Glacier No.1 station
Primary CryoNet Station Information

Urumqi Glacier No.1monitored by Tianshan site for long term is the largest valley glacier (1.65 km2) in the Urumqi River source region. Being the glacier which is monitored for the longest time and has the most systematic data in China, Glacier No. 1 is the only reference glacier in China which is monitored in the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) network. Glacier No.1 is one of the ten glaciers which are specially observed in the world. It also is one of the few glaciers in the world which are observed more than 50 years. For more than half a century, the study of Urumqi Glacier No.1 and Urumqi River source region has crucial influence on the formation and development of the theory of Chinese glaciology, as well as the formation and evolution of water resources in arid area of Northwest China and Central Asia. Urumqi Glacier No.1becomes the important reference and model of the glaciology study for many countries.

Other Networks to Which This CryoNet Station Belongs

Measurement Methods Used

Data Information


Cunde Xiao, Zhongqin Li, Lin Zhao, Shichang Kang,Yuanqing He, Xiang Qin, Xiaobo He. High Asia cryospheric observation:a proposed network under Global Cryosphere Watch(GCW). Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 2012, 4(1), 1-12.


The measurements made at Urumqi Glacier No.1 station are listed in the following tables. (Note: If End Year is blank, measurements are ongoing.)

Cryosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year Frequency
GlacierAnnual mass balance1959Continuous
GlacierWinter mass balance1959Continuous
GlacierGlacial runoff1959Continuous
GlacierGlacial discharge1959Continuous
GlacierSurface topography1980Fragmented
GlacierFacies, snowline1980Fragmented
GlacierSurface temperature1980Fragmented

Atmosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year Frequency
MetAir temperature2005Continuous
MetHumidity/vapour pressure2005Continuous
MetWind speed and direction2005Continuous
MetAir pressure2005Continuous
MetTotal precipitation2005Continuous
RadiationDownwelling shortwave2005Continuous
RadiationUpwelling shortwave2005Continuous

Last updated: 31 May 2017