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  • Station or cluster: CryoNet Station
  • Type: Primary
  • Attribute(s): Cal/val, Research
  • Belongs to cluster: Sodankyla-Pallas
  • WMO ID (if any):
  • Shape: point
  • Latitude, longitude: 67.36183, 26.63415
  • Altitude and/or range (m): 180
  • Landscape: Boreal
  • Year established: 2005
  • Year ended (therefore inactive): 2018
  • Year-round? Yes
  • Operations contact: Timo Ryyppo
  • Science contact: Anna Kontu
  • Data contact: Anna Kontu
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Sodankyla Intensive Observation Area (IOA)
Primary CryoNet Station Information

The IOA was established in 2005. Most of the instruments were relocated in 2018 to the newly built ICOS tower.

It consists of a forest opening and the forest surrounding it. There are several instruments related to satellite cal/val activities at the IOA: an optical spectrometer, microwave radiometers, microwave scatterometer and numerous automatic reference measurements such as soil moisture, snow temperature and SWE, and basic meteorological parameters. Weekly manual snow pit measurements are also performed at the site. The 48m high meteorological mast was set up 1999, where the wind parameters are measured.

Other relevant measurement method documents:

Fierz C, Armstrong RL, Durand Y, Etchevers P, Greene E, McClung DM, Nishimura K, Satyawali PK, Sokratov SA, The International Classification for Seasonal Snow on the Ground. IHP-VII Technical Documents in Hydrology No83, IACS Contribution No1, UNESCO-IHP, Paris, 2009

Data Information


Leppanen L, Kontu A, Hannula H-R, Sjoblom H, Pulliainen J: Sodankyla manual snow survey program, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 163-179, doi:10.5194/gi-5-163-2016, 2016
Ikonen J, Vehvilainen J, Rautiainen K, Smolander T, Lemmetyinen J, Bircher S, Pulliainen J: The Sodankyla in situ soil moisture observation network: an example application of ESA CCI soil moisture product evaluation, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 95-108, doi:10.5194/gi-5-95-2016, 2016
Lemmetyinen J, Kontu A, Pulliainen J, Vehvilainen J, Rautiainen K., Wiesmann, A, Matzler C, Werner C, Rott H, Nagler T, Schneebeli M, Proksch M, Schuttemeyer D, Kern M, Davidson M: Nordic Snow Radar Experiment, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst. Discuss., doi:10.5194/gi-2015-29, 2016
Rautiainen K, Lemmetyinen J, Schwank M, Kontu A, Menard CB, Matzler C, Drusch M, Wiesmann A, Ikonen J, Pulliainen J: Detection of soil freezing from L-band passive microwave observations, Remote Sens. Environ., 147, pp. 206-218, 2014


The measurements made at Sodankyla Intensive Observation Area (IOA) are listed in the following tables. (Note: If End Year is blank, measurements are ongoing.)

Cryosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year Frequency
SnowSnow water equivalent2015Continuous
SnowSnowpack profile20062018Fragmented
FrozengroundGround temperature2006Continuous

Atmosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year Frequency
MetAir temperature2006Continuous
MetHumidity/vapour pressure2012Continuous
MetWind speed and direction2001Continuous
MetTotal precipitation2010Continuous
RadiationDownwelling shortwave2012Continuous
RadiationUpwelling shortwave2012Continuous

Measurement Notes and Other Measurements

Category Description or List
Seasonally frozen groundSoil moisture profile since 2006
OtherBrightness temperature at 1.4, 10.65, 18.7, 21, 36.5, 89, 150 GHz since 2009/2012 until 2018, continuous/fragmented

Radiance spectrum at 350-1000 nm (2500 nm until 2015) since 2010

Last updated: 21 August 2019