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  • Station or cluster: CryoNet Cluster
  • Type: Integrated
  • WMO ID (if any):
  • Shape: transect
  • Latitude, longitude: 67.368, 26.633
  • Altitude and/or range (m): 180-565
  • Landscape: Boreal
  • Year established: 1908
  • Year-round? Yes
  • Operations contact: Timo Ryyppo
  • Science contact: Anna Kontu
  • Data contact: Anna Kontu
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Integrated CryoNet Cluster Information

The location of the Sodankyla-Pallas site in Finnish Lapland is ideal for atmospheric and environmental research in the boreal and sub-Arctic zone. The principal observation infrastructure of the FMI, the Arctic Research Centre (ARC), is situated in two main areas: the headquarters in Sodankyla (67.368N, 26.633E) and the Pallas clean air research station (67.967N, 24.117E).

The Sodankyla facility hosts programs exploring upper-air chemistry and physics, atmospheric column measurements, snow/soil hydrology, biosphere-atmosphere interaction and satellite calibration-validation studies. Due to the warming effect of the Gulf Stream the area is included in the boreal region. However, with regard to stratospheric meteorology, Sodankyla can be classified as an Arctic site, often lying beneath the middle or the edge of the stratospheric polar vortex and in the zone of polar stratospheric ozone depletion. Its strategic location, coupled with ready accessibility from all parts of the world, makes the ARC an excellent base for studying various themes of global change in a northern context. The ARC research sites belong to the Lapland Biosphere-Atmosphere Facility (LAP-BIAT), an infrastructure project through which the EU can fund visiting research groups.

The Pallas Global Atmospheric Watch station focuses on monitoring of the near-surface air chemistry and physics as well as greenhouse gas exchange.

Stations in This Site

This site is comprised of the following stations:

Broad Research Focus

Cryosphere ecosystem processes

Other Networks to Which This CryoNet Cluster Belongs

Measurement Methods Used

Data Information


The measurements made at Sodankyla-Pallas are listed in the following tables. This is a combination of measurements made at the stations within the site, where the start and end years in the tables are the earliest and latest years of measurement. (Note: If End Year is blank, measurements are ongoing.)

Cryosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year
SnowSnow water equivalent19142015
SnowSnowpack profile20062018
SnowSnow surface area2018
PermafrostSoil temperature2000
PermafrostSoil moisture2000
FrozengroundGround temperature2000

Atmosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year
MetAir temperature19082014
MetHumidity/vapour pressure1959
MetWind speed and direction1959
MetAir pressure1959
MetTotal precipitation1959
MetTrace gases1988
MetSensible and latent heat2002
RadiationDownwelling shortwave1957
RadiationUpwelling shortwave1957
RadiationDownwelling longwave2002
RadiationUpwelling longwave2002
RadiationSunshine duration1950

Measurement Notes and Other Measurements

Category Description or List
Snow Albedo data (global and reflected solar radiation) from years 1957-1971 can be found from Meteorological Yearbook of Finland. Since 1971 data is digitized.
Freshwater iceManual measurements
Seasonally frozen ground Soil moisture profile since 2006. Soil moisture continuously since 2011. Soil moisture profile since 2000.
Atmosphere Shortwave radiation from years 1957-1971 can be found from Meteorological Yearbook of Finland. Since 1971 data is digitized. Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density, upwelling and downwelling, since 2005.
Hydrologyevaporation, stratospheric water vapour vertical profile soundings, and precipitation measurements.
EcologyCH4 and CO2 flux measurements Tree trunk permittivity since 2018

Tree skin temperature since 2018.

OtherSoil (measured parameters): Soil temperature profile, Soil moisture profile, Soil heat flux, Soil respiration

Lake ice (Lake Orajarvi): Total ice thickness, white ice layer thickness, ice layers, water surface from the bottom of the ice, snow properties on top of the ice

Others: Distributed observations (automatic and manual) covering boreal forests, wetland, and tundra sites (soil moisture (permittivity) and temperature profiles). Brightness temperature at 1.4, 10.65, 18.7, 21, 36.5, 89, 150 GHz since 2009/2012 until 2018, continuous/fragmented

Radiance spectrum at 350-1000 nm (2500 nm until 2015) since 2010

. Other observations: Manual and automatic soundings, Satellite reception, Clouds, Radioactivity, Greenhouse gas columns etc. Ice and snow temperature profile, continuous (during wintertime), start year: 2009. Brightness temperature at 1.4, 10.65, 18.7, 21, 36.5 GHz since 2018, continuous/fragmented


Last updated: 11 December 2019