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  • Station or cluster: Contributing Station
  • Belongs to cluster: Koxkar
  • WMO ID (if any):
  • Shape: point
  • Latitude, longitude: 41.70, 80.17
  • Altitude and/or range (m): 2981
  • Landscape: Valley
  • Year established: 2003
  • Year-round? Yes
  • Operations contact: Haidong Han
  • Science contact: Donghui Shangguan
  • Data contact: Haidong Han

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Terminus Station
Contributing Station Information

The Terminus Station at which the basecamp of the Koxkar site locates was built in 2003.The termunus of Koxkar glacier is about 800 meters in the west. In the station, a 10m meteorological tower was built on the meadow in 2007 to carry out multi-layer weather and soil observations. A hydrological station was set by the river to measure the meltwater runoff from the Koxkar glacier. Mass balance and supraglacial velocity of the glacier were measured in each month of the ablation period.

Measurement Methods Used

Data Information


Han Haidong, Ding Yongjian, Liu Shiyin, Wang Jian. 2015. Regimes of runoff components on the debris-covered Koxkar glacier in western China. Journal of Mountain Science, 12(2): 313-329.

Han Haidong. 2013. AIWA 1.0: A universal graphical user interface for distributed hydrological modeling. Computers & Geosciences, 59: 108-115.

Han Haidong, Liu Shiyin, Wang Jian, Wang Qiang, Xie Changwei. 2010. Glacial runoff characteristics of the Koxkar glacier, Tuomuer-Khan Tengri Mountain Ranges, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 61(4)?665-674.

Han Haidong, Wang Jian, Wei Junfeng, Liu Shiyin. 2010. Backwasting rate on debris-covered Koxkar Glacier, Mt. Tuomuer, China. Journal of Glaciology, 56(196)?287-296.

Han Haidong, Ding Yongjian, Liu Shiyin.2006. A simple model to estimate ice ablation under a thick debris layer. Journal of Glaciology, 52(179)?528-536.


The measurements made at Terminus Station are listed in the following tables. (Note: If End Year is blank, measurements are ongoing.)

Cryosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year Frequency
SnowSnow on the ground (WMO code 0957)2007Sporadic
SnowSnow water equivalent2007Sporadic
SnowSnowpack profile2009Sporadic
SnowSnowfall depth2007
GlacierAnnual mass balance2007Fragmented
GlacierGlacial runoff2003Continuous

Atmosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year Frequency
MetAir temperature2007Continuous
MetHumidity/vapour pressure2007Continuous
MetWind speed and direction2007Continuous
MetAir pressure2007Continuous
MetTotal precipitation2007Continuous
MetSensible and latent heat2007Continuous
RadiationDownwelling shortwave2007Continuous
RadiationUpwelling shortwave2007Continuous
RadiationDownwelling longwaveContinuous
RadiationUpwelling longwave2007Continuous

Measurement Notes and Other Measurements

Category Description or List
HydrologyMeltwater runoff, since 2003, continuous.

Last updated: 31 May 2017