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  • Station or cluster: Contributing Station
  • Belongs to cluster: Koxkar
  • WMO ID (if any):
  • Shape: point
  • Latitude, longitude: 41.71, 80.15
  • Altitude and/or range (m): 3215
  • Landscape: Glacier
  • Year established: 2003
  • Year ended (therefore inactive): 2016
  • Year-round? Yes
  • Operations contact: Haidong Han
  • Science contact: Donghui Shangguan
  • Data contact:

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Lower Station
Contributing Station Information

The Lower Station was built on supraglacial debris of the Koxkar glacier between 2003 and 2016. Main instruments in the station include a one-layer observatory AWS and a total precipitation gauge. In 2015 an eddy-flux station was installed to carry out a short-term turbulence measurements on debris layer.Due mainly to the unstability of the debris landscape, the station was uninstalled and will be rebuilt on lateral moraine to satisfiy the data requirement of GCW.

Measurement Methods Used

Data Information


Han Haidong, Ding Yongjian, Liu Shiyin, Wang Jian. 2015. Regimes of runoff components on the debris-covered Koxkar glacier in western China. Journal of Mountain Science, 12(2): 313-329.

Han Haidong. 2013. AIWA 1.0: A universal graphical user interface for distributed hydrological modeling. Computers & Geosciences, 59: 108-115.

Han Haidong, Liu Shiyin, Wang Jian, Wang Qiang, Xie Changwei. 2010. Glacial runoff characteristics of the Koxkar glacier, Tuomuer-Khan Tengri Mountain Ranges, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 61(4)?665-674.

Han Haidong, Wang Jian, Wei Junfeng, Liu Shiyin. 2010. Backwasting rate on debris-covered Koxkar Glacier, Mt. Tuomuer, China. Journal of Glaciology, 56(196)?287-296.

Han Haidong, Ding Yongjian, Liu Shiyin.2006. A simple model to estimate ice ablation under a thick debris layer. Journal of Glaciology, 52(179)?528-536.


The measurements made at Lower Station are listed in the following tables. (Note: If End Year is blank, measurements are ongoing.)

Cryosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year Frequency

Atmosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year Frequency
MetAir temperature2003Continuous
MetHumidity/vapour pressure2003Continuous
MetWind speed and direction2003Continuous
MetTotal precipitation2003Fragmented
MetSensible and latent heat2016Fragmented
RadiationDownwelling shortwave2003Continuous
RadiationUpwelling shortwave2003Continuous

Last updated: 31 May 2017