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  • Station or cluster: Contributing Station
  • Belongs to cluster: Koxkar
  • WMO ID (if any):
  • Shape: point
  • Latitude, longitude: 41.78, 80.10
  • Altitude and/or range (m): 3737
  • Landscape: Glacier
  • Year established: 2003
  • Year-round? Yes
  • Operations contact: Haidong Han
  • Science contact: Donghui Shangguan
  • Data contact: Haidong Han

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Middle Station
Contributing Station Information

The Middle Station of the Koxkar Site is located at the middle part of the glacier on the ice surface. An automatic weather station was install to measure one-level meteorological variables as air temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction and shortwave radiations. The landscape of the station is ice with patched thin debris. In 2015 an eddy-flux station was installed to carry out a short-term turbulence measurements on bare ice. This data together with turbulence observations on debris layer in Lower Station will be used to analyze eddy flux characteristics of the glacier on different landscapes.

Measurement Methods Used

Data Information


Han Haidong, Ding Yongjian, Liu Shiyin, Wang Jian. 2015. Regimes of runoff components on the debris-covered Koxkar glacier in western China. Journal of Mountain Science, 12(2): 313-329.

Han Haidong. 2013. AIWA 1.0: A universal graphical user interface for distributed hydrological modeling. Computers & Geosciences, 59: 108-115.

Han Haidong, Liu Shiyin, Wang Jian, Wang Qiang, Xie Changwei. 2010. Glacial runoff characteristics of the Koxkar glacier, Tuomuer-Khan Tengri Mountain Ranges, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 61(4)?665-674.

Han Haidong, Wang Jian, Wei Junfeng, Liu Shiyin. 2010. Backwasting rate on debris-covered Koxkar Glacier, Mt. Tuomuer, China. Journal of Glaciology, 56(196)?287-296.

Han Haidong, Ding Yongjian, Liu Shiyin.2006. A simple model to estimate ice ablation under a thick debris layer. Journal of Glaciology, 52(179)?528-536.


The measurements made at Middle Station are listed in the following tables. (Note: If End Year is blank, measurements are ongoing.)

Cryosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year Frequency
GlacierAnnual mass balance2003Fragmented

Atmosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year Frequency
MetAir temperature2003Continuous
MetHumidity/vapour pressure2003Continuous
MetWind speed and direction2003Continuous
MetTotal precipitation2003Fragmented
MetSensible and latent heat2015Fragmented
RadiationDownwelling shortwave2003Continuous
RadiationUpwelling shortwave2003Continuous

Last updated: 31 May 2017