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Metadata

  • Station or site: CryoNet Site
  • Type: Integrated
  • WMO ID (if any): NA
  • Shape: polygon
  • Latitude, longitude: -75.1, 123.33
  • Altitude and/or range (m): 3230
  • Landscape: Icesheet
  • Year established: 2004
  • Year-round? Yes
  • Operations contact: Pascal Morin
  • Science contact: Giovanni Macelloni
  • Data contact: Christophe Genthon
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Concordia
Integrated CryoNet Site Information

Concordia is a joint French-Italian research facility opened in 2005 on the Antarctic Plateau, Antarctica (-75.1, 123.33), managed together by PNRA (Italian National Antarctic Programme) and IPEV (Institut Polaire Francais Paul Emile Victor).
It is built at 3,233 m above sea level on the third highest summit of Antarctica: Dome C.

Although the summit of a local dome, the surface is essentially flat:surface elevation above sea-level varies by only a few meters over horizontal distances of tens of km. Snow fall and accumulation are very small (about 10 cm of snow accumulation per year) The surface is consistently snow covered because the temperature is always way below freezing all year long and melting does not occur. Temperatures hardly rise above -25 C in summer and can fall below -80 C in winter. The annual average air temperature is -54.5 C. Humidity is low and it is also very dry, with very little precipitation throughout the year.

The station is permanently staffed with at least 10 people in the winter (about half of whom with scientific observation duties) and more than 70 during the local summer. This allows a large range of observation and scientific experiments, including in the field of meteorology, glaciology, snow science, sismology, geomagnetism astronomy and astrophysics, and medical sciences. Operational meteorological observations are carries out, including one radiosounding per day at 12:00 TU, and transmitted on the GTS. The horizontal homogeneity and latitude of Dome C make it an ideal site for the calibration and validation of data from satellites on polar orbit.

Stations in This Site

This site is comprised of the following stations:

Broad Research Focus

Concordia is a joint French-Italian research facility opened in 2005 on the Antarctic Plateau, Antarctica (-75.1, 123.33), managed together by PNRA (Italian National Antarctic Programme) and IPEV (Institut Polaire Francais Paul Emile Victor).

The station is permanently staffed with at least 10 people in the winter (about half of whom with scientific observation duties) and more than 70 during the local summer. This allows a large range of observation and scientific experiments, including in the field of meteorology, glaciology, snow science, sismology, geomagnetism astronomy and astrophysics, and medical sciences.

Integrated Approach

Different experiments and activities which are carried out in the station are strictly connected and acquired data are commonly shared by several disciplines. A French-Italian committee has been established by the base owners in order to insure an integrated approach the development and the implementation of the experiments and the harmonization of them.

Representativeness of the Site

The site of Dome-C, where the base is located, is representative of a wide portion (hundreds of square kilometers) of the inner part of the East Antarctic Plateau. Surface is homogenuous wiht an elevation change less than 10 m in 50 km.

Site Facilities

Satellite connection to data transfer. Presence of people at the site, in both winter and summer period, able to maintain the stations.

Other Networks to Which This CryoNet Site Belongs

Data Information

Publications

Meteorology:

Genthon, C., M. S. Town, D. Six, V. Favier, S. Argentini, and A. Pellegrini, 2010. Meteorological atmospheric boundary layer measurements and ECMWF analyses during summer at Dome C, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res. 115, D05104, doi:10.1029/2009JD012741.

Rabier, F., A. Bouchard, E. Brun, A. Doerenbecher, S. Guedj, V. Guidard, F. Karbou, V.H. Peuch, L. El Amraoui, D. Puech, C. Genthon, G. Picard, M. Town, A. Hertzog, F. Vial, P. Cocquerez, S.A. Cohn, T. Hock, J. Fox, H.Cole, D. Parsons, J. Powers, K. Romberg, J. VanAndel, T. Deshler, J.Mercer, J.S. Haase, L. Avallone, L. Kalnajs, C.R. Mechoso, A. Tangborn, A. Pellegrini, Y. Frenot, J.N. Thépaut, A. McNally, G. Balsamo, and P. Steinle, 2010. The Concordiasi Project in Antarctica, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 91, 69?86.


Brun, E., D. six, G. Picard, V. Vionnet, L; Arnaud, E. Bazile, A. Boone,O. Bouchard, C. Genthon, V. Guidard, P. Le Moigne, F. Rabier, Y. Seity, 2011. Snow-atmosphere coupled simulation at Dome C, Antarctica, J. Glaciol. 57,721-736

Genthon, C., D. Six, V. Favier, M. Lazzara, L. Keller, 2011. Atmospheric temperature measurement biases on the Antarctic plateau, J. Atm. Oceanic Technol., DOI 10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00095.1 28, No. 12, 1598-1605.


Ricaud, P, C. Genthon, P. Durand, J. L. Attie, F. Carminati, G. Canut, J. F. Vanacker, L. Moggio, Y. Courcoux, A. Pellegrini, T. Rose, 2012. Summer to Winter Diurnal Variabilities of Temperature and Water Vapour in the Lowermost Troposphere as Observed by HAMSTRAD over Dome C, Antarctica, Bound. Layer. Met. 143, 227-259.

Genthon C., D. Six, H. Gallée, P. Grigioni, and A. Pellegrini, 2013. Two years of atmospheric boundary layer observations on a 45-m tower at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 3218?3232,doi:10.1002/jgrd.50128.

Argentini, S., I. Petenko, E. Viola, G. Mastrantonio, I. Pietroni, G. Casasanta, E. Artistidi, and C. Genthon, 2013. The surface layer observed by a high resolution SODAR at Dome C, Antarctica, Annals of Geophysics,56, 1-10.

Maurizio Busetto, Christian Lanconelli, Mauro Mazzola, Angelo Lupi, Boyan Petkov, Vito Vitale, Claudio Tomasi, Paolo Grigioni and Andrea Pellegrini. Parameterization of clear sky effective emissivity under surface-based temperature inversion at Dome C and South Pole, Antarctica. Antarctic Science, available on CJO2013. doi:10.1017/S0954102013000096.

- Surface mass balance/ Snow measurements / Remote Sensing

Genthon, C., D. Six, C. Scarchilli, V. Giardini, M. Frezzotti, 2014. Meteorological and snow accumulation gradients across dome C, east Antarctic plateau, Int. J. Clim., in revision.

Groot Zwaaftink, C.D.; Cagnati, A.; Crepaz, A.; Fierz, C.; Macelloni, G.; Valt, M.; Lehning, M., 2013: Event-driven deposition of snow on the Antarctic Plateau: Analyzing field measurements with SNOWPACK. Cryosphere 7: 333-347.

Macelloni, G.; Brogioni, M.; Pettinato, S.; Zasso, R.; Crepaz, A.; Zaccaria, J.; Padovan, B.; Drinkwater, M., "Ground-Based L-Band Emission Measurements at Dome-C Antarctica: The DOMEX-2 Experiment," Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on , vol.51, no.9, pp.4718,4730, Sept. 2013 doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2013.2277921

N. Champollion , G. Picard, L. Arnaud , E. Lefebvre, and M. Fily, Hoar crystal development and disappearance at Dome C, Antarctica: observation by near-infrared photography and passive microwave satellite, The Cryosphere, 7, 1247-1262, doi:10.5194/tc-7-1247-2013, 2013

France, J. L., M. D. King, M. M. Frey, J. Erbland, G. Picard, A. MacArthur, J. Savarino, Snow optical properties at Dome C, Antarctica: implications for snow emissions and snow chemistry of reactive nitrogen,Atmos, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11 (18): 9787-9801

Brucker, L., Picard, G. and Fily, M. Snow grain size profiles deduced from microwave snow emissivities in Antarctica. Journal of Glaciology, 56(197), 514-526, 2010

Measurements

The measurements made at Concordia are listed in the following tables. This is a combination of measurements made at the stations within the site, where the start and end years in the tables are the earliest and latest years of measurement. (Note: If End Year is blank, measurements are ongoing.)

Cryosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year
SnowAlbedo2007
IcesheetSurface accumulation
IcesheetInternal temperature

Atmosphere Measurements

Element Variable Start Year End Year
MetAir temperature
MetHumidity/vapour pressure
MetWind speed and direction
MetAir pressure
MetAerosols
RadiationDownwelling shortwave
RadiationUpwelling shortwave
RadiationDownwelling longwave
RadiationUpwelling longwave
RadiationUV

Measurement Notes and Other Measurements

Category Description or List
Snow Albedo measurements are performed at 2 and 30 m of height.
Icesheet Internal snow temperature down to 20 m. Annual stakes network surface accumulation since 2006, locally high frequency (snow height gauges) since 2011. Internal temperature measured in the range 0-10 m at differnt depth. The probes in the first meter 0-100 cm are annually displaced at theirs nominal value. Accumulation is also measured. .
Atmosphere Boundary layer profile 6 levels across ~40 m since 2009, 2 additional levels since 2015. Available Daily Radiosoundings at 12:00 UTC from 2005.

Both AWS and Soundings station have WMO ID 89625

Data are delivered through the WEB site "www.climantartide.it"

AWS coordinates are : -71,1 ; 123.4 . Altitude = 3233 m

or aerosol using sun-photometric techniques, aerosl optical tickness (AOT) and turbidity parameters are measured.

Activities were affected by several problems in the past so that acquaired data-sets have not the same regularity of radiation meas.

In the plan are to install moon photometer and try to detect AOD also during polar night.

BSRN coordinates are: -75.32, 123.39

BSRN data are available at bsrn.awi.de.


Last updated: 31 May 2017